Sunday, April 19, 2015

(Beginners Level) Numbers (listening), Can, Cause and Effect



We use 'can' to talk about 'possibility'.
  • Can you do that?
  • I can't manage to do that.
  • You can leave your car in that parking space.
  • You cannot smoke in here.
Notice that there are two negative forms: 'can't' and 'cannot'. These mean exactly the same thing. When we are speaking, we usually say 'can't'.
We use 'can' to talk about 'ability'.
  • I can speak French.
  • I can't drive.
We use 'can' to ask for and give permission. (We also use 'may' for this but is more formal and much less common.)
  • Can I speak to you or are you too busy?
  • You can use my phone.
  • You can't come in.
We use 'can' in offers, requests and instructions.
  • Can I help?
  • Can you give me a hand?
  • When you finish that, you can take out the garbage.
We use 'can' with 'see' 'hear' 'feel' 'smell' 'taste' to talk about something which is happening now . (Where you would use the present continuous with most other verbs.)
  • I can smell something burning.
  • Can you hear that noise?
  • I can't see anything.
We can use 'can't' for deduction. The opposite of 'can't' in this context is 'must'.
  • You can't be hungry. You've just eaten.
  • You must be hungry. You haven't eaten anything all day.
  • He was in London one hour ago when I spoke to him. He can't be here yet.

Cause and Effect

When you are giving a presentation, your job is to not only present the facts but also to give the reasons (why), the purpose (objectives) and the results.
In a presentation, the language used is often very simple, much simpler than if we were writing.
For example:
  • We sold the land because we needed to release the cash.
  • We closed the offices in London because they were too expensive to run.
  • We set up the team to look at possible ways to improve efficiency.
  • We sold the land to get necessary capital for investment.

    • We sold the land and had enough cash to invest in new equipment.
    • We expanded the sales network and sales increased.

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